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Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Number 4, April 2007, pp. 248-253(6)
From a cohort of 976 subjects born in 1914, APOE genotype was determined and MRI examinations were carried out in 75 subjects. WMH were rated using a standard semi-quantitative method. ANOVA and regression analyses were conducted to explore the relative importance of the potential risk factors.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 187, May 2007, pp. 72-75(4)
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene have been associated with both familial and sporadic late-onset Parkinson's disease. A large number of mutations in this gene have been identified; however, for many of these variants, the pathogenicity and relative frequency are unknown. Herein, we investigate the frequency of a number of recently identified LRRK2 mutations in Norway.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a complex genetic response that may include the expression of organelle specific stress genes. We investigated the effects of brain trauma on the expression of a number of stress genes by in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress gene grp78, ER protein processing enzymes calnexin and protein disulphide isomerase
(PDI), the mitochondrial stress gene hsp60, and the cytoplasmic stress gene hsp70.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2007 99(8):639-652
Malignant gliomas are generally resistant to all conventional therapies. Notable exceptions are anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1p (1p+/-). Patients with 1p+/- anaplastic oligodendroglioma frequently respond to
procarbazine, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea, and
vincristine. Because the underlying biologic basis for this clinical finding is unclear, we evaluated differentially expressed 1p-encoded proteins in 1p+/+ and 1p+/+ malignant glioma cell lines and then examined whether their expression was associated with outcome of patients with anaplastic
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 187, May 2007, pp. 76-79(4)
The relative frequencies of different ataxias vary among different ethnic and geographic groups. The aim of this study was to examine patients with cerebellar ataxia and find the occurrence of autosomal dominant and recessive cerebellar ataxias in the population of the southern and eastern parts of Norway and estimate its prevalence.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 187, May 2007, pp. 68-71(4)
We present a patient with a left anteromedial thalamic lesion with an amnesic syndrome. The patient underwent neuropsychological testing, cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF) analyses, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [T2, flair, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)] and [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography
(FDG-PET) to assess indirect effects of thalamic lesions on cortical function.
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common mechanism of traumatic brain injury
(TBI) for which there is no well-accepted anatomic measures of injury severity. The present study aims to quantitatively assess DAI by measuring white matter lesion volume visible in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) weighted images and to determine whether higher lesion volumes are associated with unfavorable functional outcome 6 months after injury.
Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures.
To develop and retrospectively determine the accuracy of a magnetic resonance
(MR) imaging strategy to differentiate intraaxial brain masses, with histologic findings or clinical diagnosis as the reference standard.
To retrospectively evaluate whether the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the tumor seen on pretreatment magnetic resonance
(MR) images is of prognostic value in patients with malignant supratentorial
Thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is strikingly time sensitive. Current guidelines require confirmation of a platelet count 100 000 before
thrombolysis; however, obtaining this laboratory test may delay treatment.
Our goal is to provide an overview of the current evidence about components of the evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients within the first 48 hours after stroke. In addition, information for healthcare policy makers is included.
We have previously demonstrated that acute pravastatin therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage ameliorates vasospasm-related delayed ischemic deficits. This study assesses the effects of pravastatin on the frequency and intensity for rescue therapy, length of inpatient stay, and long-term outcome at 6 months.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Volume 14, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 355-358
Forty-four evaluable patients with intracranial meningiomas were assessed for the expression of the cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 and of proteins involved in proliferation and apoptosis such as
PCNA, MIB-1, p53 and bcl-2. Analyses were carried out by western blot and immunohistochemistry after immediate processing of fresh tumor specimens.
British Journal of Cancer 24 April 2007; doi:10.1038
Versican is a large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan produced by several tumour cell types, including high-grade
glioma. The increased expression of certain versican isoforms in the extracellular matrix
(ECM) plays a role in tumour cell growth, adhesion and migration.
Stroke survivors experience functional loss in basic activities of daily living
(ADLs) and in everyday community activities or instrumental activities of daily living
(IADLs). Historically there has been a greater focus by rehabilitation professionals on basic ADLs than on
Stroke is a major risk factor for hip fracture. Patients with intermediate rather than severe or mild stroke deficits at the time of hospital discharge have the most fractures. This proof-of-concept study evaluated the efficacy of a single infusion of
zoledronate, an intravenous bisphosphonate, in preserving hip bone density after stroke.
Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), known to be associated with plaque instability, may convey a higher stroke risk. The aim of this study was to assess whether the identification of IPH by MRI predicts recurrent clinical cerebrovascular events.
Early risk of stroke after a transient ischemic attack can be reliably predicted with risk scores based on clinical features of the patient and of the ischemic event, but it is unclear how these features correlate with findings on brain imaging.
Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) has been well established for delineating the eloquent cortex. However, ECS is still coarse and inefficient in delineating regions of the functional cortex and can be hampered by after-discharges.
To evaluate the effectiveness of an occupational therapy (OT) program combined with neuromotor rehabilitation, by assessing the degree of functional independence reached by patients with spinal cord injuries at first hospitalization.
Treatment of patients who fail epilepsy surgery is problematic. Selected patients may be candidates for further surgery, potentially leading to a significant decrease in the frequency and severity of seizures. We present our long-term outcome series of highly investigated patients who failed resective epilepsy surgery and subsequently underwent reoperative resective procedures.
Although prophylactic antibiotics have been shown by randomized clinical trials
(RCTs) to help prevent deep infection after craniotomies, recent reports have suggested that antibiotics are not effective in preventing postcraniotomy meningitis.
Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is a useful adjunct for treating complex aneurysms. Decreased cerebral metabolism and resultant ischemic tolerance create an environment suitable for devascularizing high-risk lesions.
IN THE FIRST part of this series, we reviewed the histological, radiographic, and molecular data gathered regarding the brain parenchymal response to radiosurgery and suggested future studies that could enhance our understanding of the topic.
Inflammatory response seems to be one of the relevant pathophysiological aspects for developing vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. The probable diagnostic value of intrathecal proinflammatory markers is still unclear and is assessed in this study.
Olfactory groove meningiomas account for 8 to 13% of all intracranial
meningiomas. Surgical removal is often performed through the
bifrontal, unilateral subfrontal (frontolateral), or pterional approach. We report on the clinical outcome and recurrence rate after surgical treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas in our neurosurgical department.
Blacks have higher mortality rates from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) than Caucasians. The time to treatment for aneurysmal SAH has been found to correlate with mortality and outcome. Therefore, we examined racial differences in the time to treatment of aneurysmal SAH among patients from the Greater Cincinnati area.
Familial adult myoclonic epilepsy (FAME) is associated with myoclonus, tremor, and rare seizures, and is a nonprogressive disorder linked to the FAME 1 locus. A similar disorder has been linked to the FAME 2 locus.
Lafora disease (LD; progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 2; EPM2) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the EPM2A and EPM2B genes. LD is characterized by the presence of strongly PAS-positive intracellular inclusions
(Lafora bodies) in several tissues.
Targeting extracellular structures that are involved in angiogenic processes, such as the extra domain B of
fibronectin, is a promising approach for the diagnosis of solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine uptake of the 18F-labeled PET tracers 18F-fluorocholine (N,N-dimethyl-N-18F-fluoromethyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium), 18F-fluoro-ethyl-L-tyrosine
(FET), and 18F-FDG in C6 gliomas of the rat and to correlate it with uptake of the anti-extra domain B antibody 131I-SIP(L19) as a marker of
We investigated the reproducibility of contrast transcranial Doppler (TCD), a safe non-invasive test for investigation of venous-to-arterial circulation shunts
(v-aCS), usually patent foramen ovale, in young stroke patients.
Patients with acute stroke often have a striking lack of knowledge of causes, warning signs, and risk factors. Lack of knowledge may lead to inappropriate secondary prevention behavior. We investigated the knowledge of patients with a TIA or minor stroke about specific aspects of their disease 3 months after the event.
Current progress in the cognitive and affective neurosciences is constantly influencing the development of psychoanalytic theory and practice. However, despite the emerging dialogue between neuroscience and psychoanalysis, the neuronal processes underlying psychoanalytic constructs such as defense mechanisms remain unclear.
European Journal of Neurology, Volume 14, Number 4, April 2007, pp. 451-454(4)
Paradoxical embolism via patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important cause of stroke, especially in younger patients. Transcatheter PFO closure is considered to bear a low risk and to be technically feasable with a high primary success rate. There are no data for the rate of procedure-associated silent embolic events. The present study sought to analyze the total number of cerebral ischemic complications with interventional PFO closure.
Seizure Volume 16, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 120-127
The findings of previous studies have been controversial regarding the optimal surgical procedures required for effective seizure control. In particular, there are varying views as to whether or not lesionectomy of a temporal-lobe-mass lesion is a satisfactory process or whether removal of additional seizure foci is necessary. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of additional removal of electrically positive foci using intraoperative electrocorticography on mass lesions related to temporal lobe epilepsy.
Seizure Volume 16, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 99-112
Epilepsies in children are complex diseases. Guidelines are needed on the appropriate use of newer versus older anti-epileptic drugs
(AEDs). This paper presents an individual patient-sampling model to assess the cost-effectiveness of using newer AEDs as add-on therapy in line with UK prescribing guidance.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology Volume 11, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 104-107
Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) have been associated with poststreptococcal encephalitis similar to encephalitis lethargica (EL). We report two children with parainfectious encephalitis of similar phenotype and IgG
New England Journal of Medicine Volume 356:e14 April 19, 2007 Number 16
An 83-year-old healthy woman was admitted with episodes of nausea and vertigo that had increased in frequency over several months. Many of the episodes involved brief periods of unresponsiveness and staring spells. She did not report a history of seizures, head trauma, headache, or vestibular disease. The neurologic examination did not reveal papilledema or any other abnormalities.
Journal of Neurotrauma Mar 2007, Vol. 24, No. 3 : 492 -507
Primary damage to the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a nearly universal consequence of spinal cord injury that contributes significantly to the overall pathology, including the introduction of reactive species that induce cytotoxicity as well as secondary insults on the BSCB itself.
Journal of Neurotrauma Mar 2007, Vol. 24, No. 3 : 446 -459
Conventional clinical neuroimaging is insensitive to axonal injury in traumatic brain injury
(TBI). Immunocytochemical staining reveals changes to axonal morphology within hours, suggesting potential for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance
(MR) in early diagnosis and management of TBI.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Volume 14, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 328-333
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension, which is a major cause of stroke. The prevalence and associations of OSA in a cohort of stroke patients were studied. The safety and tolerability of early treatment with nasal continuous airways pressure
(nCPAP) was also assessed.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 28:660-665, April 2007
Hypoxic-ischemic cerebral changes can be difficult to distinguish from normal myelination on T1-weighted images. We hypothesized that comparing signal intensity (SI) of brain structures on T1-weighted images enables differentiation of myelination from hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.
For the treatment of patients with chronic refractory epilepsies, development of new antiepileptic drugs is crucial. Three regulatory trials have demonstrated that add-on levetiracetam is efficacious in patients with localization-related epilepsy.
European Radiology, Volume 17, Number 4, April 2007, pp. 975-982(8)
Subjective and objective image quality (IQ) criteria, radiation doses, and acquisition times were compared using incremental
monoslice, incremental multislice, and helical multislice acquisition techniques for routine unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT).
European Journal of Neurology, Volume 14, Number 5, May 2007, pp. 477-482(6)
Anaemia is a negative prognostic factor for patients with heart failure and impaired renal function, but its role in stroke patients is unknown. Furthermore, anaemia has been shown to influence the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide
(NT-proBNP), but this is only investigated in patients with heart failure, not in stroke patients.
Emergency Radiology, Volume 13, Number 6, March 2007, pp. 307-311(5)
We examined the yield and utility of shunt series (SS) performed for suspected shunt malfunction and whether an abnormal SS lead to shunt revision when head computed tomography (CT) was normal or unchanged.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 186, April 2007, pp. 37-44(8)
Hypsarrhythmia is generally associated with infantile spasms, a combination referred to as West syndrome. It is debatable whether hypsarrhythmia is usefully regarded as a form of non-convulsive status epilepticus
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 186, April 2007, pp. 45-56(12)
Acute encephalopathy is the most serious complication of pediatric viral infections, such as influenza and exanthem
subitum. It occurs worldwide, but is most prevalent in East Asia, and every year several hundreds of Japanese children are affected by influenza-associated encephalopathy.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 187, May 2007, pp. 55-58(4)
Twelve patients (2 males, 10 females) with a mean age of 31-years (11-48-years) and with drug-resistant IGE had VNS implanted in the period 1995-2006. All had generalized seizures documented by video-electroencephalogram. Mean follow-up period was 23-months (9-54-months).
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 186, April 2007, pp. 29-36(8)
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides accurate localizing information of the epileptogenic zones in localization-related epilepsies. Refractory status epilepticus
(RSE) is a life-threatening emergency that often requires prolonged high-dose suppressive therapy
(HDST) to stop frequent and prolonged seizures.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 186, April 2007, pp. 57-61(5)
Theophylline-associated seizures (TAS) are considered a neurologic emergency, as they can sometimes be intractable and difficult to stop with standard treatments such as intravenous administration of diazepam.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 22(1):48-55, January/February 2007
The remarkable persistence of disablement in chronic traumatic brain injury and the dearth of accommodation define the condition as a disorder of adaptation. This construct is extended to explain exceptional recoveries after postacute treatment.
European Journal of Neurology, Volume 14, Number 5, May 2007, pp. 556-562(7)
This study estimates the lifetime societal costs associated with incident intracerebral hemorrhage
(ICH) in Spain. An epidemiological model of ICH incidence, survival and morbidity was developed using retrospective data from 28 hospitals in Andalusia and published data identified in a systematic literature review.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 22(1):26-30, January/February 2007
As clinician ratings of performance-based assessments of activities of daily living
(ADL) require examiners to judge the appropriateness of actions within task context, this study sought to document occupational therapists'
(OTs') ability to distinguish examples of potential ADL errors of healthy adults (HA) from those of individuals with frontal lobe lesions
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Volume 44, Issue 2, March-April 2007, Pages 141-151
Clinical discrimination of the early stages of AD and MCI is challenging. MRI indices which are simple enough to be applied by non-radiologists on hard copies would be of practical importance in the discrimination.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 22(1):1-13, January/February 2007
Assess unmet needs of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) 1 year after hospital discharge; compare perceived need with needs based on deficits (unrecognized need); determine major barriers to services; evaluate association of needs with satisfaction with life.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 22(1):39-47, January/February 2007
Psychotherapy is now an approach used within several models of
neurorehabilitation. However, a core theoretical model to guide psychotherapeutic practice is lacking. This article attempts to illustrate how the Generic Model of Psychotherapy of Orlinsky and Howard, which emphasizes the common factors shared by many psychotherapies, can be applied in neurorehabilitation settings.
FUNCTIONAL BRAIN MAPPING may be useful for both preoperative planning and intraoperative neurosurgical decision making. "Gold standard" functional studies such as direct electrical stimulation and recording are complemented by newer, less invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. Less invasive techniques allow more areas of the brain to be mapped in more subjects (including healthy subjects) more often (including pre- and postoperatively). Expansion of the armamentarium of tools allows convergent evidence from multiple brain mapping techniques to bear on pre- and intraoperative decision making.
To improve functional stereotactic microelectrode localization of small deep brain structures by developing and evaluating a recording system with two closely separated independently controlled microelectrodes.
Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 28(2):108-118, April 2007
We investigated changes in inattentive and hyperactive symptoms over 2 years following traumatic brain injury
(TBI) in relation to preinjury attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), injury, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables.
BJU International, Volume 99, Number 5, May 2007, pp. 1073-1077(5)
Authors from Oslo report the difficult problem of urinary incontinence after a stroke, with impaired awareness of the need to void. In this interesting paper they compared it to urge urinary incontinence, and felt that it probably reflects greater brain damage. They also found that there were various urodynamic patterns associated with the condition.
Depression is commonly experienced among persons with temporal lobe epilepsy
(TLE). Although evidence exists implicating dysfunction of distributed neural structure and circuitry among depressed persons without epilepsy, little is known regarding the neural correlates of depression in
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 187, May 2007, pp. 51-54(4)
Status epilepticus (SE) and serial attacks (SA) represent neurological emergencies, and mortality rate for SE/SA is high, ranging from 3% to 25%, depending on cause and co-morbidity. As SE/SA become more refractory to treatment over time, rapid, appropriate treatment is extremely important.
Systemic inflammation is associated with ischemia and Alzheimer disease (AD). We hypothesized that inflammatory biomarkers would be associated with neuroimaging markers of ischemia (i.e., white matter hyperintensities
[WMH]) and AD (i.e., total brain volume [TCB]).
New England Journal of Medicine Volume 356:1527-1535 April 12, 2007 Number 15
There is no community standard for the treatment of glioblastoma in patients 70 years of age or older. We conducted a randomized trial that compared radiotherapy and supportive care with supportive care alone in such patients.
European Journal of Neurology, Volume 14, Number 4, April 2007, pp. 379-386(8)
To elucidate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cerebrovascular
stenosis, we performed comparative studies of MetS and its components between ischemic stroke patients with intra- and extracranial
Studies of the brain basis of decision-making and economic behavior are providing a new perspective on the organization and functions of human prefrontal cortex. This line of inquiry has focused particularly on the ventral and medial portions of prefrontal cortex, arguably the most enigmatic regions of the "enigmatic frontal lobes."
Surgery is an effective, high-cost procedure used increasingly to treat refractory epilepsy. For surgery to be cost-effective, long-term cost savings from reduced health care use should provide some offset to the initial costs of evaluation and surgery.
Intraoperative speech mapping has evolved into the "gold standard" for neurosurgical removal of lesions near the language cortex. The integration of neuronavigation into a multimodal protocol can improve the reliability of this type of operation, but most systems require rigid fixation of the patient's head throughout the operation.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 187, May 2007, pp. 30-33(4)
Neurovascular compression has been postulated as a probable mechanism for a large number of cranial nerve syndromes, with trigeminal neuralgia
(TGN) as the prime example. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is often cited as the procedure of choice for treatment of medically refractory
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 187, May 2007, pp. 22-29(8)
Endovascular reperfusion therapy in acute ischaemic stroke comprises a number of pharmacological and mechanical procedures. Mechanical embolectomy offers the promise of efficacious treatment for patients in whom pharmacological thrombolysis is contraindicated or might be ineffective.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 115, Supplement 186, April 2007, pp. 21-24(4)
Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) in childhood is a medical emergency and its aetiology and outcome mean that it should be studied separately from adult
CSE. The incidence in developed countries is between 17 and 23/100,000 with a higher incidence in younger children.