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Sleep apnoea has significant medical implications. A reliable non-invasive method (as a regular Holter system with a specific software) would be valuable for the screening of this condition in ambulatory patients.
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 0937-4477 (Print) 10.1007/s00405-008-0826-2
The aim of this study was to describe the similarities and differences as well as the convenience in using of cephalometric radiographs and craniofacial computed tomography in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients and to demonstrate the relationship between the severity of sleep-disordered breathing and severity of cephalometric abnormalities.
Journal of Virology, October 2008, p. 9477-9491, Vol. 82, No. 19
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) ORF7b (also called 7b) protein is an integral membrane protein that is translated from a bicistronic open reading frame encoded within subgenomic RNA 7.
Canadian Respiratory Journal October 2008, Volume 15 Issue 7: 365-369
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, compliance is a significant problem and has been incompletely assessed in long-term studies.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Ahead of print - article in press
Spirometry programs (outside of primary care settings) designed to detect COPD in the general adult population are not justified, since the true positive yield (airway obstruction with an FEV1 below 60% predicted) is very low, and the false positive rate is very high.
Canadian Respiratory Journal October 2008, Volume 15 Issue 7: 370-374
In a four-centre trial, the use of sputum cell counts (sputum strategy [SS]) to guide treatment had resulted in fewer and less severe exacerbations without the need for a higher corticosteroid dose, compared with the use of symptoms and spirometry (clinical strategy [CS]).
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Volume 5, Issue 5 October 2008 , pages 305 - 309
Pulmonary rehabilitation confers significant benefit to patients with COPD. The beneficial effects are seen in dyspnea and health-related quality of life. These measures are often considered in clinical trials as study endpoints.
Hot tub lung is a common form of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis. Hot tub lung is believed to be a hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by exposure to aerosolized Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that grow in indoor hot tubs, enclosed swimming pools, etc.
In previous work we have demonstrated that delivery of low concentrations (250 ppm) of carbon monoxide by means of inhalation to donors, recipients, or both protects transplanted lungs from ischemia-reperfusion injury (improved gas exchange, diminished intragraft and systemic inflammation, and retention of graft vascular endothelial cell ultrastructure).
Prolonged air leak is reported in up to 50% of patients after lung volume reduction surgery. The effect of an autologous fibrin sealant on the intensity and duration of air leak and on the time to chest drain removal after lung volume reduction surgery was investigated in a randomized prospective clinical trial.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;198:1502-1513
Emerging research suggests that genetically distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may modulate the immune system differently. This may be of importance in high-burden settings where 1 genetic group of M. tuberculosis confers significant morbidity.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;198:1420-1426
In both military and civilian settings, transmission of respiratory pathogens may be due to person-to-person and environmental contributions. This possibility was explored in a military training setting, where rates of febrile respiratory illness (FRI) often reach epidemic levels.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g (PPARg) ligands have been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory actions. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is defined as a specific form of chronic fibrosing lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosis which leads to deterioration and destruction of the lungs.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 27(11):969-973, November 2008
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a ubiquitous, newly described member of the Parvoviridae family frequently detected in the respiratory tract of children, but only few reports provide data proving the link between HBoV and respiratory tract disease (RTD).
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Volume 5, Issue 5 October 2008 , pages 282 - 290
The increase in FEV1 by 2 weeks of treatment with budesonide/formoterol (125 ml) was not significantly different from that of placebo (43 ml) (p = 0.07). Budesonide/ formoterol treatment did not suppress morning serum cortisol compared to placebo (-16 %; p = 0.50). In conclusion, budesonide/formoterol reduces sputum eosinophils and improves symptoms in the treatment of out-patient COPD exacerbations.
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Volume 5, Issue 5 October 2008 , pages 310 - 318
Historically, spirometry has been the objective measure used to confirm a symptom-based clinical suspicion of COPD. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) created a strong rationale for early identification and intervention in COPD by documenting the ability of spirometry to detect mild airflow problems in many asymptomatic smokers.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 814 - 819
To determine whether a corticosteroid dry-powder inhaler could reverse the pharyngeal and laryngeal side effects produced by a corticosteroid pressurised metered-dose inhaler. Design. Prospective, randomized, controlled, cross-over, evaluator-blinded study.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 807 - 813
Asthma can have a negative effect on psychological and social well-being in childhood. Sports participation, school attendance, and quality of life are important issues for children with asthma and their parents.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 723 - 729
Asthma is a very prevalent disease in the United States, and the incidence is rising for a variety of reasons. Although progress has been made on several therapeutic fronts, adherence to asthma therapy, particularly controller medications, remains poor.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 833 - 838
It remains controversial whether environmental tobacco smoke increases the risk of allergic diseases. The present prospective cohort study examined whether in utero exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke were associated with the development of wheeze, asthma, and atopic eczema in Japanese infants.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 774 - 779
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Lung density indices on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) are assumed to reflect the degree of air trapping originated from airflow limitation in airway diseases.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 754 - 757
Rhinitis and asthma are currently recognized as manifestations of a single syndrome, the chronic allergic respiratory syndrome. Nearly all individuals with asthma have rhinitis, and severe rhinitis has been associated with worse outcomes in asthma patients.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 747 - 753
Results from two clinical trials of mometasone furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI) were reviewed to evaluate the consistency of effects of MF-DPI administered once-daily in the evening (QD PM) or twice-daily (BID) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with persistent asthma previously treated with inhaled corticosteroids.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 790 - 794
Asthma is a complex respiratory disease, characterized by airway inflammation and reversible airway obstruction. Both genetic and environmental factors are important in the development and expression of the disease.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 849 - 851
There are numerous known benefits associated with the use of an electronic medical record (EMR). In October of 2004, a pediatric respiratory medicine practice at a major academic institution began the process of implementing an EMR system.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 839 - 844
Asthma management guidelines recommend avoiding exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. A limitation of such recommendations is that they do not provide information about how the public should obtain and act on air quality information.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 795 - 799
Dental caries is an infectious disease and is highly prevalent among children. In the etiology of allergic diseases, the hygiene hypothesis contends that infections might confer protection against the development of allergic diseases.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 740 - 746
The main objective of asthma treatment is tailored control for each patient. However, despite the excellent therapeutic arsenal currently available, many patients remain unable to achieve adequate control of this disease.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 785 - 789
For Mexican and Chinese immigrants it has been reported that foreign born children have a lower prevalence of asthma than U.S.-born children. Inner-city black populations have a high prevalence of asthma. However, despite growing populations of black immigrants, we are aware of no previous studies that have looked at the effect of nativity on their asthma prevalence.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 766 - 769
Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions seen by any health care professional. Multiple stimuli may lead to acute airway hyperresponsiveness and an exacerbation of the disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease being one of them.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 9 November 2008 , pages 758 - 765
Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is recognized as an associated problem in patients with asthma and may be identified by the Nijmegen questionnaire. We conducted an observational study to determine if breathing control therapy (BCT) improved Nijmegen scores or asthma-related quality of life in patients attending a problem asthma clinic.
Respiratory Research 2008, 9:70doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-70
In airway epithelial cells, calcium mobilization can be elicited by selective autocrine and/or paracrine activation of apical or basolateral membrane heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors linked to phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation, which generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and induces Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores.
Neurological Sciences Volume 29, Number 5 / October, 2008 355-357
We report the case of a 47-year-old man with idiopathic central sleep apnoeas recurring during wake-sleep transitions at night or at diurnal naps. Symptoms associated with central apnoeas were sudden awakening with shortness of breath, sleep fragmentation and daytime tiredness.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Ahead of print article in press
There is scarce epidemiological population-based data on the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) co-morbidity in adolescents. The aim was to verify asthma and AR prevalence rates in order to emphasise asthma/AR co-morbidity.
Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-limiting genetic condition in Caucasians and the life-expectancy of those newly diagnosed is increasing. Inspiratory muscle training may be a way of improving the lung function and quality of life of people with cystic fibrosis. Hence there is a need to establish whether this intervention is beneficial.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, Volume 68, Number 5, November 2008 , pp. 511-515(5)
A correlation between fungal exposure and aggravation of inflammatory symptoms in asthmatic individuals is well documented in the literature. However, the molecular mediators responsible for clinical symptoms due to fungal exposure in individuals with asthma are still not known.
Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 20(6):686-691, November 2008
To review therapeutic goals in pulmonary fibrosis in systemic sclerosis in the light of pathogenetic thinking and therapeutic data, with particular attention to recent data questioning the importance of the identification of alveolitis.
We present a case of intrabronchial foreign body buried in granulation tissue, which was successfully extracted administrating tranilast (n-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl] anthranilic acid), suppressing collagen synthesis by fibroblasts in keloid and hypertrophic scars, and corticosteroid. Bronchoscopy of a 74-year-old man showed the nail was buried in reactive granulation tissue and could not be observed from the surface.
A 67-year-old man was referred for aortic valve surgery due to aortic valve regurgitation. He underwent an aortic valve replacement through a left thoracotomy, since he had a history of esophageal surgery with substernal gastric tube reconstruction and lymph node dissection through a right thoracotomy 14 years ago.
The diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for the diagnosis of isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy in patients with previous malignancy is not well defined.
Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions.
Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports Volume 8, Number 4 / July, 2008 367-373
Abstract Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. Cysteinyl (cys) LTs C4, D4, and E4 are long known to contribute to airway contractile responses via ligation of the cysLT1 receptor, and cysLT1 antagonists are beneficial in some patients with asthma.
A lung deposition model for fibrous aerosol needs accurate deposition equations for different regions of the human respiratory tract. For fiber deposition in the tracheobronchial region there are several theoretical and empirical equations to predict deposition efficiency in the impaction-dominant region.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Ahead of print article in press
Lung function in 1686 adult patients was measured before, and 15 minutes after, salbutamol inhalation. Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) was defined as a 12% improvement over baseline in either FEV1 or FVC, along with an absolute volume increment of 200ml.
Grass and birch pollens are known to induce asthma. However there are few reports about other pollen-induced asthma. Japanese cedar is the most common allergen in rhinitis in Japan but is controversial on whether it can provoke asthma.
To evaluate the precision of three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) in estimating the ipsilateral lung volume and the potential of this measurement to predict neonatal death in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
The revised Geneva score is a fully standardized clinical decision rule (CDR) in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The variables of the decision rule have different weights, which could lead to miscalculations in an acute setting. We have validated a simplified version of the revised Geneva score.
While some experimental and clinical research suggests that statins improve outcomes after severe infections, the evidence for pneumonia is conflicting. We examined whether preadmission statin use decreased risk of death, bacteremia, and pulmonary complications after pneumonia.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 27(9):776-782, September 2008
The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the increase in antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage was associated with antibiotic use in the community in children in Southern Israel.
Fungi of the Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium complex are known to be colonizers and infectious agents of the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Colonized CF patients are at high risk for the development of disseminated scedosporiosis after lung transplantation.
The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine the effects of progressive preoperative pneumoperitoneum (PPP) on the size of large incisional hernia (IH) and abdominal muscles by abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan.
At some institutions, catheter angiography is used for confirmation of aortic injuries and equivocal MDCT findings. Because of the speed and efficiency of 64-MDCT, we believe that diagnostic catheter angiography may be obsolete. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with 64-MDCT in the evaluation of acute traumatic aortic injury (ATAI).
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 27(11):1033-1035, November 2008
Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution, and penicillin-susceptibility were monitored among children attending daycare centers in France from 1999 to 2006 to assess the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and antibiotic-reducing policies.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 2008, 2:336doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-336
Transfusion-related acute lung injury is emerging as a common cause of transfusion-related adverse events. However, awareness about this entity in the medical fraternity is low and it, consequently, remains a very under-reported and often an under-diagnosed complication of transfusion therapy.
Pathology International, Volume 58, Number 10, October 2008 , pp. 657-663(7)
Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug for life-threatening tachycardia, but various adverse effects have been reported. Reported herein is an autopsy case of valvular heart disease, in a patient who developed a lung mass (1.5/cm in diameter) and proteinuria (2.76/g/day) after treatment with amiodarone for a long time.
Canadian Respiratory Journal October 2008, Volume 15 Issue 7: 375-376
A solitary papilloma versus the usual multiple lesions of papillomatosis is extremely rare. Even more infrequent is a solitary papilloma of the trachea in an adult patient. In the present report, a case of a solitary papilloma in the distal trachea is presented.
Canadian Respiratory Journal October 2008, Volume 15 Issue 7: 377-379
n the present report, two cases of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis that caused a diagnostic confusion are presented. The first case was initially misdiagnosed as nonsmall cell carcinoma, and both cases were initially misidentified as blastomycosis because of the presence of an atypical morphological form of Coccidioides immitis.
Medicinal Research Reviews Published Online: 27 Oct 2008
The advent of nanotechnology has reignited interest in the lungs as a major route of drug delivery for both systemic and local treatments. The large surface area of the lungs and the minimal barriers impeding access to the lung periphery make this organ a suitable portal for a variety of therapeutic interventions.
Canadian Respiratory Journal October 2008, Volume 15 Issue 7: 355-360
The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aerobic exercise training (AET) program alone or combined with an antihypertensive agent (irbesartan) to reduce blood pressure (BP) and enhance heart rate variability (HRV) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.
Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 14, Number 11 November 2008
KI virus was detected in respiratory secretions of 8/367 (2.2%) symptomatic and 0/96 asymptomatic children (p = 0.215). WU virus was detected in 26/367 (7.1%) symptomatic and 6/96 (6.3%) asymptomatic children (p = 1.00). These human polyomaviruses may not independently cause respiratory tract disease in young children.
Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 14, Number 11 November 2008
To determine links between human rhinoviruses (HRV) and asthma, we used data from a case-control study, March 2003-February 2004, among children with asthma. Molecular characterization identified several likely new HRVs and showed that association with asthma exacerbations was largely driven by HRV-A and a phylogenetically distinct clade of 8 strains, genogroup C.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports Volume 8, Number 4 / July, 2008 357-366
Asthma is an episodic respiratory syndrome caused by several pathogenic processes. This recurrent syndrome is associated with an accelerated decline in lung function and increase in airway obstruction over time.
Enteric duplication cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities. We report a case of an enteric cyst duplication located a few centimeters proximal to the ileocecal valve in a patient with vague abdominal symptoms.
To identify fluid responsiveness, a correlation between respiratory variations in pulse pressure ([DELTA]PP) and respiratory variations in pulse oximetry photoplethysmographic waveform amplitude ([DELTA]POP) in mechanically ventilated patients has been demonstrated.
Currently, there are limited data available describing the long-term outcomes of chest trauma survivors. Here, the authors sought to describe chest trauma survivor outcomes 6 months and 1 yr after discharge from the intensive care unit, paying special attention to pulmonary outcomes.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Ahead of print - article in press
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a disease with high prevalence. In AR, exposure to airborne allergens elicits an allergic response which involves epithelial accumulation of effector cells - e.g. mast cells and basophils - and subsequent inflammation.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Ahead of print article in press
Pakistan has a population exceeding 160 million. Communicable diseases remain the most important health problem in Pakistan, with non-communicable diseases and injuries comprising a quarter of all deaths.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008, doi:10.1164/rccm.200804-540OC
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is increased in patients with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and these patients have decreased alveolar fluid reabsorption (AFR).
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Volume 19, Number 7, November 2008 , pp. 626-633(8)
Several epidemiological studies described poor asthma control in children. However, the diagnosis of childhood asthma in these studies is uncertain, and asthma control in children of an outpatient clinic population during treatment by a paediatrician is unknown.
Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 17-October-2008, Vol 121 No 1284
To investigate time trends in prevalence of symptoms of asthma by repeating, during 2001-3 (Phase Three), the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One study that was conducted in New Zealand in 1992-3.
To measure the incidence of nosocomial infection (NI) among patients with septic shock according to the place of septic shock acquisition and to evaluate the increase in the risk of pulmonary infection associated with septic shock.
Airway edema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction.
Ann Thorac Surg 2008;86:1653-1658. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.05.080
Kuntz's nerves (KN) have been blamed for surgical failures of endothoracic sympathectomy. The prevalence of these fibers, however, varies between the surgical (about 10%) and anatomic literature (about 80%).
The aims of this study were to detect the incidence of thoracic histologically proven aortitis in a large series of 788 patients operated on for thoracic aortic disease, to describe the surgical and histologic features of inflammatory thoracic aortopathies, and to evaluate the frequency of postsurgical complications and mortality.
he Gore TAG thoracic endoprosthesis (W. L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms on March 23, 2005, and remains the only FDA approved thoracic device to date.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Ahead of print article in press
To investigate the burden of allergic rhinitis (AR) amongst primary care practitioners (PCPs), the impact of AR on PCPs' professional lives, and the effect on their management of AR patients of PCPs' personal experience of AR.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Volume 19, Number 7, November 2008 , pp. 639-647(9)
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important component of the pulmonary host defense system. We hypothesized that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) SP-D levels are lower in children presenting with recurrent bronchitis, providing evidence for a role of SP-D in human respiratory diseases.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, November 2008, p. 4130-4136, Vol. 52, No. 11
Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients and a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tracts of asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Biofilms enable bacteria and yeasts to persist in infections and can contribute to antimicrobial resistance.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 715 - 721
It is well known that IL-4 and IL-13 play critical roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. In this study, by overexpressing murine IL-4 receptor antagonist (mIL-4RA), a competitive antagonist for both IL-4 and IL-13, we investigated the therapeutic effects of mIL-4RA on mouse asthmatic airway inflammation.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 654 - 663
The evidence for a causal relationship between allergens and asthma depends on epidemiologic findings showing a strong association between specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or total IgE and asthma.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 664 - 669
Negative affectivity is a measure of anxiety associated with increased reporting of symptoms. Few studies have explored this association with respect to drug-induced symptoms in patients taking medication for a chronic disease in real life.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 625 - 629
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have perceptions of their illness and its management that determine their coping behaviors (e.g., adherence, self-management) and, consequently, their outcomes.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 677 - 680
A study was conducted to evaluate the role of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) levels in the management of patients with mild and moderate persistent bronchial asthma. Spirometry, exhaled CO measurements and symptom scoring was done before and after four weeks of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 705 - 709
In the absence of other explanations, exercise-induced dyspnea is often labeled as a manifestation of asthma. The aim of this study was to use exercise provocation in cold air among patients with exercise-induced dyspnea, but without any bronchoconstriction, in order to study induced symptoms and different physiological parameters and to measure the possible influence of exercise in cold air on capsaicin cough sensitivity.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 681 - 687
In this study, 647 subjects stable on fluticasone propionate/salmeterol Diskus 100/50 mcg BID (FSC) were randomized to continue FSC 100/50 mcg BID or 'step down' to either fluticasone propionate (FP) 100mcg BID, salmeterol (SAL) 50 mcg BID, or montelukast (MON) 10 mg once daily for 16 weeks.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 639 - 647
In this meta-analysis, studies on swimming and asthma were divided into four groups: Group I compared frequency of asthma among elite swimmers to that of other athletes; Group II examined the association between asthma and swimming during childhood; Group III evaluated effects of swimming programs on asthma severity and pulmonary function; and Group IV compared immediate respiratory effects of swimming to those of other types of exercise.
Journal of Asthma, Volume 45, Issue 8 October 2008 , pages 630 - 638
Not taking treatment preferences into account may lead to patients' inappropriate use of asthma treatments. The objective of this study was to quantify these preferences, in terms of risk-benefits trade-offs, for six asthma treatment attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE).
Respiratory Research 2008, 9:69doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-69
Bile-duct ligated (BDL) rats recruit pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) and are highly susceptible to endotoxin-induced mortality. The mechanisms of this enhanced susceptibility and mortality in BDL rats, which are used as a model of hepato-pulmonary syndrome, remain unknown. We tested a hypothesis that recruited PIMs promote endotoxin-induced mortality in a rat model.
Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 17-October-2008, Vol 121 No 1284
We report a case of a 92-year-old lady with cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP). She was referred for assessment by her family doctor with raised inflammatory markers. She gave a history of a severe viral illness 2 months prior.
Tracheobronchial foreign body (TFB) removal in adult patients using the combined technique of flexible bronchoscopy (FBSC) through the endotracheal tube as well as using the simple FBSC has not often been described.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008, doi:10.1164/rccm.200806-953OC
Pulmonary arterial hypertension in association with connective tissue disease (CTD-PAH) has historically had a poor prognosis with a 1 year survival in systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) of 45%.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008, doi:10.1164/rccm.200804-560OC
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Although a close association between COPD and atherosclerosis has been speculated, such scientific information is limited.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Volume 29, Number 5, 9/10 2008 , pp. 475-479(5)
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common comorbidity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the presence of rhinosinusitis, sinus site involvement, and total computed tomography (CT) sinus scores and the presence of allergy, allergen type, and severity of disease. Asthma patients (128 subjects), consisting of 57 allergic and 71 nonallergic patients, were included in the study.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Volume 29, Number 5, 9/10 2008 , pp. 521-527(7)
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) provides information on patients' everyday physical, emotional, and social difficulties that traditional measurements of asthma severity (pulmonary function assessments and asthma symptom scores) may not reflect.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008, doi:10.1164/rccm.200807-1010OC
Asthma treatment might improve when inhaled steroids are titrated on airway inflammation. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO0.05), a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, can be measured at home.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008, doi:10.1164/rccm.200711-1716OC
Airway obstruction in patients with asthma is associated with airway dysfunction and inflammation. Objective measurements including sputum analysis can guide therapy, but this is often not possible in typical clinical settings.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Volume 29, Number 5, 9/10 2008 , pp. 461-467(7)
Some studies have proposed exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a noninvasive tool for monitoring airway inflammation in children. Moreover, atopic dermatitis (AD) has been considered a risk factor for the development of asthma.
The European Journal of Orthodontics 2008 30(5):521-526
Cervical column morphology was examined in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compared with the cervical morphology of an adult control group with neutral occlusion, normal craniofacial morphology, and no history of sleep apnoea.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterised by reduced functional capacity, dyspnoea and exercise-induced hypoxia. Physical training is beneficial for people with other chronic lung conditions, however its effects in ILD have not been well characterised.
Thorax. Published Online First: 13 October 2008. doi:10.1136/thx.2007.091249
Non-invasive ventilation is first-line treatment for patients with acutely decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but endotracheal intubation, involving admission to critical care, may sometimes be required.
Thorax. Published Online First: 13 October 2008. doi:10.1136/thx.2008.097543
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the presence of airflow limitation due to loss of lung elasticity and/or airway narrowing. The pathological hallmark of loss of lung elasticity is emphysema and airway wall remodeling contributes to the airway narrowing. Using computed tomography (CT) these lesions can be assessed by measuring low attenuation areas (LAA) and airway wall thickness/luminal area, respectively.
Heart. Published Online First: 12 May 2008. doi:10.1136/hrt.2007.138172
This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which the right ventricle is able to increase stroke volume (SV) during exercise in COPD. A second aim was to determine whether resting pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) is predictive of exercise SV.
Arch Dis Child. Published Online First: 16 October 2008. doi:10.1136/adc.2008.144709
We performed a prospective randomised controlled pilot study comparing home oxygen therapy with traditional in-patient hospitalisation for children with acute bronchiolitis. Children aged 3-24 months with acute bronchiolitis, still requiring oxygen supplementation 24 hours after admission to hospital, were randomised to receive oxygen supplementation at home with support from "Hospital in The Home" (HiTH) or continue oxygen supplementation in hospital (Hospital). 44 children (26 male, mean age 9.2 months) were recruited (HiTH n=22) between 1st August - 30th November 2007.
Thorax. Published Online First: 13 October 2008. doi:10.1136/thx.2007.094953
Urban air pollution can trigger asthma exacerbations, but the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on lung function, or onset of airway disease and allergic sensitization in children is less clear.
Little is known about the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in morbidly obese patients and whether such patients show peculiar clinical findings that may make it easier to suspect and diagnose OSAHS.
Thorax. Published Online First: 13 October 2008. doi:10.1136/thx.2008.100545
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common clinical problem with described investigation pathways. While thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has been shown to be accurate in pleural fluid detection, its use in the diagnosis of malignant pleural disease has not been assessed.
Thorax. Published Online First: 29 July 2005. doi:10.1136/thx.2005.040444
Current guidelines recommend the use of a combination of inhaled beta2-agonists and anticholinergics, particularly for patients with acute severe or life threatening asthma in the emergency setting. However, this statement is based on a relatively small number of randomised controlled trials and related systematic reviews.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Volume 29, Number 5, 9/10 2008 , pp. 468-474(7)
Asthma is a complex genetic disease. Genetic and functional characteristics of interleukin (IL)-1 support a role as an asthma locus for the IL-1 family on chromosome 2q12-21. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of IL-1beta promoter region -511C/T and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene (IL-RN) and bronchial asthma in Turkish children.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 40(10):1725-1732, October 2008
The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) predicts survival in pulmonary hypertension (PH). The peak oxygen consumption (V[spacing dot above]O2peak) measured during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) also relates to survival in PH, and it is unknown how the prognostic information from measurements of ventilatory responses and gas exchange during CPET compares to the prognostic information obtained by the 6MWD alone.
Lung-specific thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression is sufficient for the development of an asthma-like chronic airway inflammatory disease. However, the nature of the downstream pathways that regulate disease development are not known.
IL-17 is a pivotal proinflammatory molecule in asthmatics. However, the cellular source of IL-17 in asthma has not been identified to date. In this study, we report that macrophages rather than Th17 cells are the main producer of IL-17 in allergic inflammation related to asthma.
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, Volume 34, Number 11, November 2008 , pp. 678-680(3)
Accurate identification of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) visits by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes will help organizations monitor quality of care for this common condition. A study was undertaken to validate ICD-9-CM coding for accurate identification of AECOPD visits.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and often underdiagnosed clinical entity. It is one of the most common causes of unexpected death with over 300,000 deaths in the United States, most often diagnosed during autopsy.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Patients with the same pathological stage of lung adenocarcinoma display marked variability in postoperative recurrence. The aim of this study was to predict the postoperative prognosis in patients with small-sized pulmonary adenocarcinoma on the basis of FDG uptake on PET, the extent of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on CT, and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels.
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, Volume 34, Number 11, November 2008 , pp. 629-638(10)
A retrospective matched (1:1) case-control study was conducted to compare the financial impact and costs attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a 25-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a 475-bed quaternary-care pediatric hospital from the perspective of multiple stakeholders, including the hospital and payors.
Thorax. Published Online First: 13 October 2008. doi:10.1136/thx.2008.102756
Craniofacial abnormalities and increased pharyngeal collapsibility due to abnormal connective tissue suggest the possibility of an increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in patients with Marfan's syndrome, but the actual prevalence is uncertain.
Thorax. Published Online First: 13 October 2008. doi:10.1136/thx.2008.102681
Smoking increases the susceptibility to pulmonary infection and is a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We postulated that cigarette smoke suppresses the activation of the innate immune system in response to bacterial infection.
Thorax. Published Online First: 13 October 2008. doi:10.1136/thx.2008.102814
Aberrant angiogenesis and defective epithelial repair are key features of Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Endostatin is an anti-angiogenic peptide with known effects on endothelial cells. This study aimed to establish the levels of endostatin in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in IPF and to investigate its actions on distal lung epithelial cells (DLEC) and primary type II cells.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Vol. 39, pp. 610-618, 2008
Mechanisms regulating myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts within fibroblastic foci in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remain unclear. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, produce heritable but potentially reversible changes in DNA or its associated proteins and are prominent in development and oncogenesis.
Pediatrics International Published Online: 9 Oct 2008
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants. The aim of the present study was to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of RSV outbreaks in Croatian children.
A genomewide association study has shown an association between variants at chromosome 17q21 and an increased risk of asthma. To elucidate the relationship between this locus and disease, we examined a large, family-based data set that included extensive phenotypic and environmental data from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy, Volume 38, Number 10, October 2008 , pp. 1582-1589(8)
Although exposure to tobacco smoke has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, cigarette smoking is still common in the asthmatic population. Induced sputum neutrophilia has been observed in asthmatic smokers, but the effects of regular smoking on their bronchial mucosa morphology remain to be defined.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2008 PrePrint Online: TH First 13th October 2008
A decision-analytic model incorporating a Markov process to assess the incremental cost and effectiveness of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention strategies was used. Modeling was carried out using a hypothetical cohort of medical patients at risk of VTE.
November 2008, Vol 98, No. 11 American Journal of Public Health 2072-2078
We investigated the relationship between the presence of in-home piped water and wastewater services and hospitalization rates for respiratory tract, skin, and gastrointestinal tract infections in rural Alaska.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy, Volume 38, Number 10, October 2008 , pp. 1680-1687(8)
Exposure to allergens or air pollutants often leads to asthma exacerbations associated with aggravation of airway inflammation. Although, repeated allergen challenge often induces chronic allergic airway inflammation (CAAI) and airway remodelling, yet, the effects of brief exposure to air pollutants such as SO2 on development of CAAI and airway remodelling remain to be clarified.
Thoracic injuries are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. These injuries account for approximately 25% of trauma-related deaths in the United States, second only to head injuries.