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Clinical Microbiology & Infection, Volume 13, Number 9, September 2007 , pp. 923-931(9)
In order to confirm the validity of the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) for patients in Europe, data from adults with pneumonia who were enrolled in two prospective multicentre studies, conducted in France (Pneumocom-1, n = 925) and Spain (Pneumocom-2, n = 853), were compared with data from the original North American study (Pneumonia PORT, n = 2287).
Clinical Microbiology & Infection, Volume 13, Number 9, September 2007 , pp. 932-936(5)
Respiratory tract infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among military personnel. A sensitive method is needed to determine the prevalence of S.pneumoniae colonisation in respiratory secretions, as well as its role in pneumonia without an established aetiology. This study investigated the efficacy of two PCR assays in screening military personnel for S.pneumoniae colonisation.
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 31(4):620-628, July/August 2007
The aims of the study were 1) to identify and quantify pulmonary changes in subjects affected by agammaglobulinemia (AG), and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and 2) to assess the incidence, type, and degree of chronic sinusitis and their relation to pulmonary changes.
Current Medical Research and Opinion, Volume 23, Number 8, August 2007 , pp. 1799-1807(9)
Despite recent advances in asthma treatment, its management in many patients remains sub-optimal. The aim of the Global Asthma Physicians and Patient (GAPP) survey was to identify barriers to optimal asthma management and to explore the content and dynamics of physician-patient communications. Here we present the key findings for adults with asthma in Australia.
European Radiology, Volume 17, Number 7, July 2007 , pp. 1908-1910(3)
In this report, the case of a 65-year-old woman with cough and dyspnoea is described. The chest radiographs showed a sharply demarcated mass located in the left paravertebral hemithorax and a left pleural effusion.
Developing new treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is extremely challenging. This disease, chronic by definition, becomes apparent only after substantial-and probably irreversible-tissue damage has occurred.
Current Medical Research and Opinion, Volume 23, Number 8, August 2007 , pp. 1867-1878(12)
In adult patients, budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy is a safe and simplified approach to asthma management, using a single inhaler, which reduces severe exacerbations and maintains similar daily asthma control at a lower drug load compared with the traditional strategy of ICS/LABA plus SABA.
Endothelial injury is an important prognostic factor in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in endothelial destruction and angiogenesis. Genetic variations of the VEGF gene have been associated with VEGF production. A study was undertaken to investigate the impact of VEGF gene polymorphisms on the clinical outcomes of ARDS.
The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the factors that determine pulmonary function more than 2 years after surgery for AIS; and 2) to determine what factors, if any, can predict an increase or decrease in the percent predicted 2-year pulmonary function.
The purpose of this study was to test napsin A as a diagnostic marker of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma in pleural effusions, and to compare its performance with TTF-1. Napsin A and TTF-1 reactivities were determined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cell blocks from 50 pleural effusion (5 mesotheliomas, 10 mesothelial proliferations, 12 pulmonary, and 23 nonpulmonary metastases).
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine: Vol. 131, No. 8, pp. 1219-1231
Pulmonary infections are common and often life-threatening in solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients. Understanding their pathology is critical to making improvements in care and survival as well as in surgical techniques, immunosuppression management, prophylaxis, and treatment. Pulmonary infections are particularly common and serious in the susceptible population of lung transplant recipients.
New Zealand (NZ) has a large pertussis disease burden compared with other developed countries. Accurate ascertainment of disease burden is fundamental to controlling pertussis and informing immunisation policy. Disease burden estimates are primarily from passive surveillance, which underestimates disease incidence. The aim of this study is to use active surveillance to determine pertussis disease burden in infants hospitalised in NZ.
The aim of this study is to characterize rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (R-ILD). The information on all reported cases of R-ILD was reviewed. This analysis focused on patient characteristics, underlying disease, rituximab dosing schedule, and R-ILD characteristic-like symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Sixteen cases of R-ILD, including our two cases, have been reported in the literature. Commonalities include older age, clinical presentation, computerized tomography findings, pulmonary function tests, and biopsy findings.
The palatal implant method originally designed to reduce snoring can significantly reduce the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in some patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a single office-based procedure.
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 31(4):608-610, July/August 2007
Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare and an only recently described vascular disease. As one of the causes of primary pulmonary hypertension, the need for the establishment of helpful diagnostic radiological criteria for this condition has become imperative. However, the unstable hemodynamic condition of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension often denies pathological sampling as a definitive diagnostic tool.
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is a rare disease involving ossification, submucosal nodularity, and bony changes within the trachea and bronchi. There is no known association with tobacco use or systemic diseases. Men are more affected than women. Presenting symptoms include hemoptysis, chronic cough, wheezing, and dyspnea, frequently leading to an incorrect diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
We report a nearly fatal case of a patient with an obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane as an early complication of endotracheal intubation. The patient developed a thick tubular, rubberlike, whitish pseudomembrane moulding the tracheal wall as a result of short-duration endotracheal intubation.
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation & Prevention. 27(4):237-244, July/August 2007
Breathing pattern retraining is frequently used for exertional dyspnea relief in adults with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is contradictory evidence to support its use. The study objective was to compare 2 programs of prolonging expiratory time (pursed-lips breathing and expiratory muscle training) on dyspnea and functional performance.
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 13(5):393-397, September 2007
The optimal duration of oral anticoagulation after a first idiopathic venous thromboembolism is uncertain. Recent prospective observational studies show that D-dimer levels have a predictive value for the risk of recurrence. D-dimer testing may help in assessing the individual need for prolonged anticoagulation.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, July 2007, p. 839-846, Vol. 14, No. 7
Both the nucleocapsid (N) and the spike (S) proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are able to induce strong humoral responses in humans following an infection. To compare the immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to the S and N proteins of SARS-CoV in SARS patients during the manifestation/convalescent period with those during the postinfection period, serum samples were collected from hospitalized SARS patients within 6 weeks after the onset of illness (set 1; 57 sequential samples from 19 patients) or 2 to 3 months after their recovery (set 2; 33 postinfection samples from 33 subjects).
European Radiology, Volume 17, Number 7, July 2007 , pp. 1892-1897(6)
Goals of our study were to compare the pulmonary hemodynamics between healthy volunteers and patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and correlate MR flow measurements with echocardiography.
Pediatric Transplantation, Volume 11, Number 5, August 2007 , pp. 543-546(4)
TRALI is a rare but serious complication associated with transfusion, and known to occur following infusion of all types of plasma-containing blood products. However, only one adult case of TRALI after allogenic marrow graft has been reported.
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 13(5):398-402, September 2007
When unfractionated heparin is used to treat acute venous thromboembolism, it is usually given by intravenous infusion with dose adjustment in response to activated partial thromboplastin time measurements. These two requirements are a barrier to treatment of venous thromboembolism with unfractionated heparin, and it is uncertain if they are necessary.
Since 1999, we have performed bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) for inoperable lung cancer patients who are unable to receive systemic chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to use the Interventional Radiological angio-computed tomography (IVR-CT/angio) system to determine the contrast ratio relative to the whole tumor volume and to assess the relationship of these data to the effect of BAI on tumor reduction.
Foreign body aspiration is a common problem in toddlers and school-aged children. Bronchoscopy is required to make a definitive diagnosis of foreign body aspiration. We examined dynamic images of breath sound distribution in 6 children with suspected foreign body aspiration (4 boys, 2 girls; age range, 9 to 14 y) and 3 healthy controls (1 boy, 2 girls; age range, 11 to 13 y). Three of the children with suspected foreign body aspiration had an abnormal distribution of breath sounds between their right and left lungs in both the images and quantitative assessments; bronchoscopy confirmed the presence of a foreign body.
Modern Rheumatology, Volume 17, Number 3, June 2007 , pp. 224-227(4)
We describe the clinical features, therapies, and clinical course of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a group of Filipinos with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with PAH by a two-dimensional echocardiogram as a tricuspid regurgitant jet of more than 25 mmHg.
To eliminate the influence of hydrostatic pressure, proper transducer positions for central venous pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure are at the uppermost blood levels of right atrium (RA) and left atrium (LA). This study was performed to investigate accurate reference levels of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure in the supine position.
The aspiration of foreign bodies is not an uncommon event, though bilateral foreign body aspiration is very rare. Tracheoesophageal voice prostheses are used to enable alaryngeal speech, but the aspiration of these devices is a well-recognized risk of use.
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews, Volume 3, Number 3, August 2007 , pp. 170-178(9)
High-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the lung is a powerful diagnostic tool in revealing morphological abnormalities that closely correspond to those of the pathological tissue specimen. High-resolution CT is usually obtained at the end of deep inspiration; however, additional CT obtained at the end of deep exhalation (expiratory CT) provides a different set of information.
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 13(5):458-463, September 2007
Mercaptopurine therapy is increasingly important as immunosuppressive therapy in interstitial lung disease. We focus on human mercaptopurine metabolism and the defects in this metabolism causing adverse drug reactions.
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 13(5):384-388, September 2007
This review describes the accuracy of multidetector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism, the role of clinical assessment and of venous phase imaging in combination with it, and the approach to the diagnosis.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86, No. 2, 488-495, August 2007
Although many foods and nutrients are associated with lung function or symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relation between overall diet and newly diagnosed COPD is not known.
Short burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) is widely prescribed in the UK with little evidence of benefit. A study was performed to examine whether SBOT benefits patients when undertaking normal activities at home among those who already use it.
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema, but this hypothesis has only been proved in the mouse and its applicability to other species, particularly humans, is uncertain. The role of MMPs in smoke-induced small airway remodelling is unknown.
Airway hyperresponsiveness is the ability of airways to narrow excessively in response to inhaled stimuli and is a key feature of asthma. Airway inflammation and ventilation heterogeneity have been separately shown to be associated with airway hyperresponsiveness.
Atopy is not uncommon among children living in rural Crete, but wheeze and rhinitis are rare. A study was undertaken to examine whether this discrepancy could be attributed to a high consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables or adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet.
Endothelial injury is an important prognostic factor in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in endothelial destruction and angiogenesis. Genetic variations of the VEGF gene have been associated with VEGF production.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Volume 16 Issue 4 August 2007 Pages 207-214
Valved holding chambers (VHCs) are prescribed with pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) to improve medication delivery for the treatment of respiratory diseases because they reduce the need for the patient to co-ordinate inhaler actuation with the onset of inhalation.
Primary Care Respiratory Journal Volume 16 Issue 4 August 2007 Pages 229-235
Despite guideline recommendation, influenza vaccination rates among asthmatic patients remain low. The objective of this study was to identify health beliefs associated with vaccination adherence in asthmatic patients.
Primary care Respiratory Journal Volume 16 Issue 4 August 2007 Pages 215-221
To gain an understanding of patients´ perspectives and perceptions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: A qualitative study using grounded theory. Ten patients in primary care in Sweden, newly diagnosed with COPD or with suspected
COPD, were interviewed.
Circulating Endothelial Precursors (PB-EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of the endothelial compartment being promptly mobilized after injuries of the vascular endothelium, but the effects of a brief normobaric hypoxia on PB-EPCs in healthy subjects are scarcely studied.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L336-L344, 2007
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute lung injury (ALI) via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated MAPK activation. The lipid A fraction of LPS is considered to be the active moiety, but whether the lipid A-TLR4 interaction accounts completely for ALI-associated MAPK activation in vivo has not been determined.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L328-L335, 2007
The endothelial glycocalyx is believed to play a major role in capillary permeability by functioning as a macromolecular barrier overlying the intercellular junction. Little is known about the functional attributes of the glycocalyx (i.e., porosity and permeability) or which constituents contribute to its overall structure-function relationship. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure albumin diffusion rates and concentration profiles above the cell surface and overlying the intercellular junctions of lung capillary endothelial cells.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L354-L363, 2007
Glycosylation of cell surface proteins can regulate multiple cellular functions. We hypothesized that glycosylation and expression of glycoproteins after epithelial injury is important in mediating repair.
Critical Care Medicine. 35(8):1928-1936, August 2007
The emergency department (ED) often serves as the first site for the recognition and treatment of patients with suspected severe sepsis. However, few evaluations of the national epidemiology and distribution of severe sepsis in the ED exist. We sought to determine national estimates of the number, timing, ED length of stay, and case distribution of patients presenting to the ED with suspected severe sepsis.
Occup Environ Med. Published Online First: 4 April 2007
Construction workers exposed to silica-containing dust are at risk of developing silicosis even at low exposure levels. Health surveillance among these workers is commonly advised but the exact diagnostic work-up is not specified and therefore may result in abundant unnecessary chest X-ray investigations.
Although foreign body aspiration is far more common in patients under the age of 3 years, the diagnosis may go unsuspected in adults, especially in patients with prolonged clinical courses and underlying diseases (ie, asthma) that mimic foreign body aspiration symptomatology. Use of a rescue inhaler may add to the risk of foreign body aspiration.
Pediatric Emergency Care. 23(7):439-444, July 2007
Sudden-onset asthma exacerbations among adults havemore rapid treatment responses than do slower-onset exacerbations. We hypothesized that a similar pattern would be evident in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an asthma exacerbation.
Critical Care Medicine. 35(8):1948-1954, August 2007
Repeated episodes of pulmonary embolism can persistently increase pulmonary arterial pressure and depress right ventricular contractility. We investigated the effects of levosimendan on right ventricular-pulmonary arterial coupling in this model of right ventricular failure.
International Journal of Epidemiology 2007 36(3):569-579
Little is known on the influence of stressful psychosocial circumstances in predicting asthma. We examine the link between asthma prevalence and domestic violence (DV) in a nationally representative sample of adults and children in India.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 176. pp. 401-408, (2007)
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects 4 to 10% of adolescents. Risk factors include overweight, male sex, and Hispanic ethnicity. Although sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been implicated as a risk factor for MetS in adults, its association with SDB in adolescents is unknown.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 176. pp. 356-361, (2007)
Increased bacterial concentration (load) in the lower airways and new bacterial strain acquisition have been posited as mechanisms for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Bacterial concentrations are higher during exacerbation than during stable disease; however, these studies are cross sectional and devoid of strain typing.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2007;64:361-365
At present there is no internationally agreed definition of occupational asthma and there is a lack of guidance regarding the resources that should be readily available to physicians running specialist occupational asthma services.
PEDIATRICS Vol. 120 No. 2 August 2007, pp. e410-e415
We characterized the T helper cytokine profiles in the respiratory tract of infants infected with influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus to examine whether these agents elicit similar cytokine responses and whether T helper type 2 polarization is associated with wheezing and severe disease.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a morbid, refractory lung disorder with an unknown pathogenesis. To investigate potential adaptive immune mechanisms in IPF, we compared phenotypes and effector functions of peripheral CD4 T cells, autoantibody production, and proliferative responses of pulmonary hilar lymph node CD4 T cells to autologous lung extracts from afflicted patients and normals.
Staging criteria for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) include symptoms and lung function parameters, but the role of reduced inspiratory muscle strength related to disease severity remains unclear.
Respirology, Volume 12, Number 4, July 2007 , pp. 617-618(2)
An 18-year-old patient had a large traumatic pulmonary pneumatocoele diagnosed 5-years after being involved in motor vehicle accident. She had minimal symptoms and CXR and pulmonary function tests were unremarkable; diagnosis was by CT scan.
There has been great interest in optimizing prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the hospital setting. However, data from earlier studies suggest that most VTEs occur in the outpatient setting. The purposes of this observational study were to describe the frequency of VTEs occurring in the outpatient setting, characterize the prevalence of previously identified risk factors for VTE, and identify previous use of VTE prophylaxis.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy, Volume 37, Number 7, July 2007 , pp. 1000-1008(9)
Reduced dietary selenium intake has been linked to the development of asthma. We have investigated whether childhood wheezing symptoms, and asthma up to the age of 5 years are associated with plasma selenium and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) concentrations in pregnant mothers and neonates.
Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare form of primary amyloidosis. There have been no regimens for treatment of this disease that have proven to be effective. There have been case reports of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) providing marked improvement in symptoms and the appearance of lesions. We report a series of seven consecutive patients who were treated with EBRT.
Vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a desirable albeit challenging strategy for prevention of airway infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. We assessed the immunogenicity of a nasal vaccine based on the outer membrane proteins F and I from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lower airways in a phase I/II clinical trial.
Selective increase of inspiratory impedance augments blood pressure in healthy subjects through activation of the respiratory pump. We studied the efficacy of respiratory maneuvers to reduce orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Volume 28, Number 3, 5/6 2007 , pp. 282-286(5)
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a super family of dimeric phase II metabolic enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophilic compounds and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, Volume 392, Number 4, July 2007 , pp. 479-483(5)
In long-term intubated patients, cuff-related tracheal injury is occasionally complicated by tracheal stricture. To keep the airway patent, bougienage and deployment of stents are adopted in patients unfit for surgery.
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 31(4):611-619, July/August 2007
To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity of the pulmonary nodules computer-aided detection (CAD) in computed tomography. To analyze parameters that modify CAD performance. We made a critical analysis of the literature, and we described CAD sensitivity. Moreover, we compared CAD and CAD plus radiologist sensitivity in detection of pulmonary nodules, and we compared different acquisition techniques (thin slice vs thick slice and low dose vs normal dose).
A large body of evidence has shown that systemic coagulopathy is a key event in severe systemic inflammation, such as that which occurs in sepsis.1 Systemic coagulopathy is the net result of activation of coagulation and defective systems of natural inhibition of coagulation, on the one hand, and attenuation of fibrinolysis on the other.
Critical Care Medicine. 35(8):1821-1828, August 2007
The coagulation and inflammatory cascades may be linked in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, direct evidence for the contribution of abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolysis proteins to outcomes in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is lacking.
Bronchiectasis remains a serious problem in developing countries. We reviewed the morbidity, mortality, and functional outcome of surgical treatment for bronchiectasis in our institution. Between 1992 and 2003, 149 patients (105 males, 44 females) underwent pulmonary resection for bronchiectasis.
Endobronchial lesions in paracoccidiodomycosis infection have rarely been described. The disseminated form of the disease seems to raise the possibility of development of lower respiratory tract abnormality, especially when lungs and upper airways are involved. Two cases of endobronchial paracoccidiodomycosis detected by bronchoscopic biopsy are here reported.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is the B-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis. Most patients present with stage IV disease involving multiple sites. Although the thoracic involvement of non-Hodgkin lymphomas is common, isolated endobronchial involvement of MCL is extremely rare and, in fact, only 1 case has been described in the English Medical Literature.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L417-L428, 2007
Myofibroblasts are pathogenic in pulmonary fibrotic disease due to their exuberant production of matrix rich in collagen that interferes with gas exchange and the ability of these cells to contract and distort the alveolar space.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L436-L445, 2007
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of bronchiolitis in infants, and a common feature of RSV infections is increased lung permeability. The accumulation of fluid in the infected lungs is caused by changes in the endothelial and epithelial membrane integrity. However, the exact mechanisms of viral-induced fluid extravasation remain unclear.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L453-L462, 2007
Transcription factors represent a major mechanism by which cells establish basal and conditional expression of proteins, the latter potentially being adaptive or maladaptive in disease. The complement of transcription factors in two major structural cells of the lung relevant to asthma, airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells, is not known.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Volume 18, Number 6, September 2007 , pp. 535-542(8)
There are more than 40 H1-antihistamines available worldwide. Most of these medications have never been optimally studied in prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trials in children.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2007;64:548-552
Reported associations of self-employment with occupational injury and cerebrovascular disease suggest that worker safety and health precautions may vary by occupational status. The authors assessed the extent to which use of respiratory protection and ventilation equipment is associated with self-employed versus employee status among adults in an international study.
Recently published papers have shown that lobectomy improves lung function in selected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) months after surgery, but little information can be found discussing the effect of lobectomy on pulmonary function in the immediate period after surgery in these cases. The aim of this multicenter prospective study is to evaluate whether preoperative COPD influences the decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 second the day after surgery.
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) provides a safe and effective method of securing an airway in anesthesia and critical care settings. Although the classic LMA provides an airtight seal over the glottic opening to provide effective gas exchange, several modifications, additions, and variations have been developed and are currently in use.
One possible cause of failure for antibiotics to treat acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) may be the presence of resistant bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiologic flora of AECB patients who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with azithromycin and evaluate the role of moxifloxacin in this patient population. Patients experiencing chronic bronchitis with persistent symptoms despite treatment with azithromycin in the prior month underwent bronchoscopy to obtain a protected specimen brush (PSB) specimen.
Nature Clinical Practice Urology (2007) 4, 422-431
Acute urinary retention (AUR) is a serious medical condition that requires emergency treatment. In this Review the authors discuss the different risk factors that can contribute to the development of AUR in men and how to identify men that could be candidates for medical therapy to reduce the risk of developing AUR.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L505-L515, 2007
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are associated with exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are characterized by a selective neutrophil infiltration. IL-17A, a cytokine derived primarily from activated T cells, has been linked to neutrophilic inflammation of the airways.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multiorgan systemic disease. The systemic features are skeletal muscle weakness and cachexia, the latter being associated with systemic inflammation. The exact mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD remain obscure.
There is ongoing debate as to how asthma should be defined in order to forward understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to build quantitative scores of asthma and asthma severity and to assess whether refinement of disease phenotypes can facilitate the identification of chromosomal regions harbouring susceptibility genes.
Activation and regulation of transcription factors (TFs) are the major mechanisms regulating changes in gene expression upon environmental exposure. Tobacco smoke (TS) is a complex mixture of chemicals, each of which could act through different signal cascades, leading to the regulation of distinct TFs and alterations in subsequent gene expression.
A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Blue Angel for Asthma Kids, an Internet-based interactive asthma educational and monitoring program, used in the management of asthmatic children. One hundred sixty-four (n = 164) pediatric patients with persistent asthma were enrolled and randomized into two study groups for a 12-week controlled trial.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E466-E474, 2007
It has been hypothesized that sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and, through increased cortisol levels, participates in the pathophysiology of metabolic and cardiovascular complications.
The calibre of the upper airway is thought to be dependant upon its passive anatomy/collapsibility and the activation of pharyngeal dilator muscles. During awake periods, the more collapsible upper airway in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) increases the dilator muscle activity through a negative-pressure reflex.
After the approval of bosentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), European authorities required the introduction of a post-marketing surveillance system (PMS) to obtain further data on its safety profile.
The clinical and economic burden of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is uncontested. We conducted the present study to determine whether low nurse-to-patient ratio increases the risk for VAP and whether this effect is similar for early-onset and late-onset VAP.
The aetiology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogeneous and still under discussion. Serological studies have suggested that Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila may play a role in acute exacerbations of COPD.
In a recent meta-analysis, surfactant administration in paediatric acute respiratory failure was associated with improved oxygenation, reduced mortality, increased ventilator-free days and reduced duration of ventilation. Surfactant is expensive, however, and its use involves installation of large volumes into the lungs, resulting in transient hypoxia and hypotension in some patients. Many questions also remain unanswered, such the as optimum dosage and the timing of administration of surfactant. The merits of surfactant administration should therefore still be decided on an individual case-by-case basis.
Persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by excessive fibroproliferation, ongoing inflammation, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and a substantial risk of death. Because previous reports suggested that corticosteroids may improve survival, the study authors performed a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of corticosteroids in patients with persistent ARDS.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 26(8):753-755, August 2007
The extent to which coronaviruses are associated with lower respiratory tract disease in previously healthy children without underlying medical conditions is unknown. We investigated instances of radiographically confirmed lower respiratory tract disease among symptomatic children with coronavirus infection. Here, we document the clinical courses of 2 previously healthy children with coronavirus-associated pneumonia.
Sleeve and wedge bronchial resections without parenchymal resection may represent a surgical option in selected cases of low-grade neoplasms of the airway. We reviewed our experience analyzing the indications, the operative technique, and the results of such operations.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Number 3, 5/6 2007 , pp. 344-347(4)
There are many well-defined risk factors for fatal asthma exacerbation; however, few data exist about the link between the severity of asthma and severity of exacerbation. The aim of this study was to determine if there is any patient and disease-related factor that predicts the severity of asthma exacerbation. The retrospective data of asthmatic patients followed up in our clinic were analyzed.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Number 3, 5/6 2007 , pp. 324-330(7)
Airway remodeling may lead to increased secretion of TGF-B. TGF-B is known to activate fibroblasts and to stimulate the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Soluble and cell-associated VEGF have been identified in subjects with chronic severe asthma.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Number 3, 5/6 2007 , pp. 368-374(7)
Several studies suggest that the prevalence of allergic diseases have increased worldwide in recent years. However, in Mexico, those diseases have not been assessed throughout time. The aim of this study was to determine whether there has been a change in the prevalence of childhood asthma, eczema, and atopic rhinitis in Mexican schoolchildren.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Number 3, 5/6 2007 , pp. 331-335(5)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and the degree of reversible airflow obstruction as detected by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced oscillometry (FOT), and interrupter technique (resistance measured by the interrupter technique [Rint]) in mild asthmatic children.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, Number 3, 5/6 2007 , pp. 336-343(8)
Asthma is one of the most common clinical symptoms in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). However, it is not known how lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) prior to the development of CSS differs from asthmatics do not develop CSS.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Volume 18, Number 5, August 2007 , pp. 401-409(9)
The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been regarded as a `benign physiological response'. A recent survey suggests that adrenal crisis might be more common in asthmatic children on ICS than previously thought. The clinical features of adrenal insufficiency are non-specific and can easily be missed.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Volume 18, Number 5, August 2007 , pp. 418-424(7)
Existing literature has shown that home dampness increases indoor mold burden and is associated with increased allergic symptoms among young children in temperate environments. There is no report of any studies of similar nature in the tropics where conditions are characterized typically by high temperatures and humidity with rainfall throughout the year.
PEDIATRICS Vol. 120 No. 2 August 2007, pp. 362-371
To gain new insights into the influence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia on the immature brain and to detect abnormalities, we studied the functional integrity of the brainstem in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The presentation and outcome of VAP due to Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa susceptible to carbapenems (Carb-S; imipenem and/or meropenem) and to colistin only (Col-S) were compared in the present retrospective study in three intensive care units.
The present systematic review examined the effectiveness of bilevel noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the management of chronic respiratory failure (CRF) due to severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A recent American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society joint Task Force report recommends using a lower limit of normal (LLN) of forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity as opposed to a fixed ratio of <0.7 to diagnose airflow obstruction, in order to reduce false positive diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). To date, there is no reliable spirometry-based prevalence data for COPD in New Zealand and the effect of different definitions of airflow obstruction based on post-bronchodilator spirometry is not known.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak of 2003 originated in Hong Kong, China, and 71.1% of the subsequent infections in Hong Kong were attributable to superspreading events. Most of these superspreading events occurred in hospitals.
Although several studies have investigated the influence of diet on asthma in schoolchildren, none of them has evaluated how obesity can modify this effect. A study was undertaken to evaluate the association of various foods and a Mediterranean diet with the prevalence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, adjusting for obesity and exercise.
Critical Care Medicine. 35(8):1918-1927, August 2007
Patients who receive prolonged mechanical ventilation have high resource utilization and relatively poor outcomes, especially the elderly, and are increasing in number. The economic implications of prolonged mechanical ventilation provision, however, are uncertain and would be helpful to providers and policymakers. Therefore, we aimed to determine the lifetime societal value of prolonged mechanical ventilation.
Leptin is a powerful stimulant of ventilation in rodents. In humans, resistance to leptin has been consistently associated with obesity. Raised leptin levels have been reported in subjects with sleep apnoea or obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. The aim of the present study was to assess, by multivariate analysis, the possible association between respiratory centre impairment and levels of serum leptin.
International Journal of Clinical Practice, Volume 61, Number 8, August 2007 , pp. 1380-1389(10)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common multi-component disease that imposes an enormous burden on the patient, the healthcare professional and the society in terms of morbidity, mortality, healthcare resource utilisation and cost. Despite the availability of several comprehensive treatment guidelines, COPD is both under-diagnosed and misdiagnosed.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease associated with significant systemic consequences. Recognition of the systemic manifestations has stimulated interest in identifying circulating biomarkers in these patients. A systematic analysis was undertaken of multiple protein analytes in the serum of well characterised patients with COPD and matched controls using novel protein microarray platform (PMP) technology.
multicentre, randomised, double blind trial comparing the combination of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate 50/500Âµg twice daily with placebo, salmeterol alone or fluticasone alone was carried out over a period of 3 years. Subjects included current or ex-smokers with at least a 10-pack year history, a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) and a prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of less than 60% predicted. There were four treatment groups into which the 6184 patients were
Iron availability is critical to many bacteria and increased iron has been described in airway secretions in cystic fibrosis (CF). The main aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between iron in CF sputum and the quantitative bacterial burden.
This randomised controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty up to 12 months after treatment. Participants had moderate to severe persistent asthma and were receiving treatment with inhaled corticosteroid and long acting Ăź agonist